大学化学 >> 2017, Vol. 32 >> Issue (10): 47-51.doi: 10.3866/PKU.DXHX201705011

师生笔谈 上一篇    下一篇

铅与硝酸反应及影响因素

曹美达,李健生*(),都京,张澜萃*()   

  • 发布日期:2017-10-27
  • 通讯作者: 李健生,张澜萃 E-mail:l_js212@163.com;zhanglancui@lnnu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    辽宁师范大学本科教学改革研究项目(LS201571);辽宁师范大学教师指导本科生科研训练项目(cx20160203)

The Reaction of Lead with Nitric Acid and Its Influencing Factors

Mei-Da CAO,Jian-Sheng LI*(),Jing DU,Lan-Cui ZHANG*()   

  • Published:2017-10-27
  • Contact: Jian-Sheng LI,Lan-Cui ZHANG E-mail:l_js212@163.com;zhanglancui@lnnu.edu.cn
  • Supported by:
    辽宁师范大学本科教学改革研究项目(LS201571);辽宁师范大学教师指导本科生科研训练项目(cx20160203)

摘要:

铅与硝酸的反应比较复杂,在无机化学教材和相关资料中对铅与硝酸反应的阐述不一致,这将不利于学生在无机化学学习中对铅的基本性质的掌握。针对无机化学教材中存在的问题,本文通过大量实验探究了铅与硝酸反应的条件以及硝酸浓度、反应温度、反应时间等对铅与硝酸反应的影响,并考查了硝酸铅在不同浓度硝酸中溶解度的变化,利用红外光谱(IR)和X射线粉末衍射(XRD)对铅与浓硝酸的反应产物进行了表征,明确了铅易溶于稀硝酸而在浓硝酸中溶解度小的实质。

关键词: 铅, 浓硝酸, 硝酸铅, 溶解性, 影响因素

Abstract:

The reaction of lead with nitric acid is very complicated. In inorganic chemistry textbooks and the related materials, the descriptions of the reaction between lead and nitric acid are not entirely identical, which will not be beneficial for students to master basic properties of lead in the study of inorganic chemistry. Aiming at this problem in inorganic chemistry teaching materials, through a lot of experiments, we studied the conditions of the reaction between lead and nitric acid, including the effects of nitric acid concentration, reaction temperature and reaction time, and investigated the solubility changes of lead nitrate in different concentrations of nitric acid. The reaction products of lead with concentrated nitric acid were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (IR) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The essence that lead is easily soluble in dilute nitric acid and slightly soluble in concentrated nitric acid is clarified.

Key words: Lead, Concentrated nitric acid, Lead nitrate, Solubility, Influencing factors

MSC2000: 

  • G64