大学化学 >> 2021, Vol. 36 >> Issue (2): 2002078.doi: 10.3866/PKU.DXHX202002078

知识介绍 上一篇    下一篇

化学武器知多少——化学毒剂的基本介绍及其去污技术的发展

张亚如1, 夏炎1,2,*()   

  1. 1 南开大学化学学院分析科学研究中心, 天津市生物传感与分子识别重点实验室, 天津 300071
    2 南开大学中心实验室, 天津 300071
  • 收稿日期:2020-02-28 录用日期:2020-03-27 发布日期:2020-04-22
  • 通讯作者: 夏炎 E-mail:nkxiayan@nankai.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:夏炎,Email: nkxiayan@nankai.edu.cn

How Much do You Know about Chemical Weapons? A Brief Introduction of Chemical Warfare Agents and Development of Decontamination Technology

Yaru Zhang1, Yan Xia1,2,*()   

  1. 1 Tianjin Key Laboratory of Biosensing and Molecular Recognition, Research Center for Analytical Science, College of Chemistry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, China
    2 Central Laboratory of Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, China
  • Received:2020-02-28 Accepted:2020-03-27 Published:2020-04-22
  • Contact: Yan Xia E-mail:nkxiayan@nankai.edu.cn

摘要:

化学武器是一种借助毒剂的毒害作用来打击敌方战斗力的武器,具有杀伤途径多、规模大、威力强、持续时间长等特点,素有“无声杀手”之称,其基本组成要素是化学毒剂(Chemical warfare agents,CWAs)。长期以来,化学武器的使用不符合伦理道德的要求,其不仅会降低对方的战斗力,而且还会导致许多无辜人员受到伤害,因此减轻化学武器的伤害至关重要。本文首先介绍了化学毒剂的分类,然后从化学的角度综述了近几年常见的检测和降解化学毒剂的方法,并对去污技术的发展趋势进行了展望。

关键词: 化学毒剂, 分类, 检测和降解

Abstract:

Chemical weapon is a kind of weapon which can attack enemy's combat power by means of poison. It can kill with many ways, large-scale, high power, and long duration. It is known as "silent killer", and its basic component is chemical warfare agents. For a long time, the use of chemical weapons in war will not only reduces the opponent's combat effectiveness, but also harms many innocent people, which is not in line with ethical requirements. Therefore, it is important to reduce the harm of chemical weapons. This article first introduces the basic knowledge of chemical weapons, including the components, classification, and then summarizes the methods of detecting and degrading chemical warfare agents in recent years from the perspective of chemistry, and prospects the development trend of decontamination technology.

Key words: Chemical warfare agents, Classification, Detection and degradation

MSC2000: 

  • G64