大学化学 >> 2021, Vol. 36 >> Issue (12): 2102023.doi: 10.3866/PKU.DXHX202102023

师生笔谈 上一篇    下一篇

从机理和动力学角度分析和优化硝化反应条件

霍英豪(), 张树永   

  • 收稿日期:2021-02-17 录用日期:2021-03-15 发布日期:2021-03-31
  • 通讯作者: 霍英豪 E-mail:hyh271314@163.com
  • 作者简介:霍英豪,Email: hyh271314@163.com

On the Condition Optimization for Aromatic Nitration Reaction Based on the Mechanisms and Kinetic Equations

Yinghao Huo(), Shuyong Zhang   

  • Received:2021-02-17 Accepted:2021-03-15 Published:2021-03-31
  • Contact: Yinghao Huo E-mail:hyh271314@163.com

摘要:

从芳香化合物的硝化反应出发,使用动力学手段对反应机理进行处理,推导出可能的速率方程,讨论反应底物的结构对决速步骤的影响,分析反应的影响因素,探讨优化反应的方法。针对在反应体系中加入脱水剂提出新的机理假设,推导出速率方程并讨论了其合理性。该讨论作为一个用物理化学原理优化有机反应条件的优秀案例,用以加强学生对有机化学反应的理解。

关键词: 硝化反应, 反应机理, 反应动力学, 影响因素

Abstract:

The kinetic features of the nitration reaction of aromatic compounds were discussed. The structure dependence of the rate-determining step and therefore the rate equation is derived. Based on these discussions, the influential factors of nitration reaction are analyzed and the reaction conditions are optimized. For addition of dehydration agent, the possible mechanism is proposed based on which this rate equation and optimal conditions are discussed. This can be used as a good case for case-study for application of the principle of physical chemistry in organic chemistry so as to deepen the students' understanding of condition optimization.

Key words: Aromatic nitration reaction, Reaction mechanism, Reaction kinetics, Influence factors

  • G64