大学化学 >> 2015, Vol. 30 >> Issue (6): 1-6.doi: 10.3866/pku.DXHX20150601

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浅谈2015年诺贝尔化学奖:DNA的损伤修复

朱晨旭1, 宋靖慧1, 伊成器1,2   

  1. 1. 北京大学生命科学学院 北京 100871;
    2. 北京大学化学与分子工程学院合成与功能生物分子中心 北京 100871
  • 发布日期:2015-12-25
  • 通讯作者: 伊成器 E-mail:chengqi.yi@pku.edu.Cn

A Brief Introduction to 2015 Nobel Prize in Chemistry:DNA Damage & Repair

Zhu Chenxu1, Song Jinghui1, Yi Chengqi1,2   

  1. 1. School of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China;
    2. College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Synthetic and Functional Biomolecules Center, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
  • Published:2015-12-25

摘要:

DNA是生物体发挥功能的遗传基础,随时都承受着来自体内或体外环境的各种压力。这些压力可以使DNA的化学结构发生变化,即产生"DNA损伤";如果这些损伤不能被及时修复,会对生命体产生严重的后果。为了应对这样的挑战,细胞存在一系列的DNA损伤修复机制;这些机制的存在使得基因组在很长的时间内得以稳定维持。2015年度诺贝尔化学奖授予了托马斯·林达尔、保罗·莫德里奇以及阿齐兹·桑贾尔,以表彰他们在DNA损伤修复研究领域的杰出贡献。本文简述了DNA损伤修复机制研究的发展历程及其与人类健康密不可分的联系。

关键词: DNA损伤, 碱基切除修复, 核苷酸切除修复, 错配修复

Abstract:

DNA carries the genetic information for living organisms, but is challenged by both endogenous and exogenous stresses all the time. Chemical structures of DNA may be changed by these stresses and hence DNA damage can be produced. DNA damage may be cytotoxic or mutagenic when left unrepaired. Cells possess several pathways to repair DNA damage and maintain the stability of genome. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2015 was awarded jointly to Tomas Lindahl, Paul Modrich and Aziz Sancar "for mechanistic studies of DNA repair". Here we briefly describe the history of DNA repair research and its enormous influence to human health.

Key words: DNA damage, Base excision repair, Nucleotide excision repair, Mismatch repair

MSC2000: 

  • O6