大学化学 >> 2019, Vol. 34 >> Issue (1): 89-91.doi: 10.3866/PKU.DXHX201806005

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萃取分配极限推导证明

吴亚东*()   

  • 收稿日期:2018-06-06 发布日期:2019-01-16
  • 通讯作者: 吴亚东 E-mail:wuyadong@mail.nwpu.edu.cn

A Discussion about Extraction Limit

Yadong WU*()   

  • Received:2018-06-06 Published:2019-01-16
  • Contact: Yadong WU E-mail:wuyadong@mail.nwpu.edu.cn

摘要:

萃取分离是化学实验中常见的操作,依据多组分热力学中的分配定律,以拉格朗日乘子法推导并从理论上证明只有在均分萃取剂的情况下,才可使萃取效果最佳。且等均萃取的极限萃余率是与萃取剂物理性质、萃取剂用量等多方面因素有关。以实例讨论了不同因素,如萃取剂用量、萃取次数、分配系数对于萃取效果的影响。对于从事化学合成、分析、分离、化工等方向的科研工作者在指定萃取方案时,有一定的借鉴和指导意义,而且可以推广到稀释、固相分离等领域中。

关键词: 均分萃取, 拉格朗日乘子法, 萃取极限, 萃取残余率

Abstract:

Extraction separation is a common operation in chemical experiments. According to the distribution law, the Lagrangian multiplier method is used to derive and prove that the extraction efficiency can be optimized only in the case of using same aliquots of solvent. The limit extraction residual rate of the extraction is related to the physical properties and the dose of the solvent used, as well as other factors. This paper provides reference and guidance on designing extraction method for those engaged in chemical synthesis, analysis, separation, and chemical industry and can be extended to the fields of dilution and solid phase separation.

Key words: Multiple aliquots solvent extraction, Lagrangian multiplier method, Extraction limit, Extraction residual rate

MSC2000: 

  • G64