大学化学 >> 2020, Vol. 35 >> Issue (12): 268-273.doi: 10.3866/PKU.DXHX201910054

化学史 上一篇    下一篇

氯酸钾二氧化锰实验室制氧法探原

李志良()   

  • 收稿日期:2019-10-25 录用日期:2019-11-19 发布日期:2019-12-09
  • 通讯作者: 李志良 E-mail:zhiliang.li@sjtu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:李志良, Email: zhiliang.li@sjtu.edu.cn

A Study on the Origination of the Laboratory Method of Oxygen Preparation by Potassium Chlorate and Manganese Dioxide

Zhiliang Li()   

  • Received:2019-10-25 Accepted:2019-11-19 Published:2019-12-09
  • Contact: Zhiliang Li E-mail:zhiliang.li@sjtu.edu.cn

摘要:

以氯酸钾为原料、二氧化锰为催化剂混合加热制取氧气是实验室制氧的经典方法之一。关于此法的源起与确立的历史过程,迄今已少有论及。本文通过还原二氧化锰、氯酸钾等在化学史上的原初角色,认为对二氧化锰的早期探究是此方案的先导:二氧化锰曾单独做过制氧原料;后舍勒通过二氧化锰与盐酸反应而得氯气,贝托莱进而发现氯酸钾;氯酸钾最初也独立做过制氧原料,不过温度条件较高;1832年,杜布莱纳首将二氧化锰引入此体系,大为降低反应温度,后又经多位化学家的考察认证,终于确立了这一经典方案。

关键词: 氯酸钾, 二氧化锰, 催化, 实验室制氧, 化学史, 杜布莱纳

Abstract:

Oxygen preparation by potassium chlorate and manganese dioxide is one of the most classical laboratory method. Few study has been made so far on its origination and establishment. Through checking the original roles of potassium chlorate and manganese dioxide, it is found that manganese dioxide was ever first selected as raw material for making oxygen, then led the discovery of chlorine by Scheele and potassium chlorate by Berthollet. Potassium chlorate itself was also ever used for oxygen preparation at a high temperature. In 1832, manganese dioxide was firstly mixed with potassium chlorate for oxygen by Döbereiner and reduces the temperature dramatically. With more following studies, the classic method of oxygen preparation via the two materials was finally established.

Key words: Potassium chlorate, Manganese dioxide, Catalysis, Laboratory method of oxygen preparation, History of chemistry, Döbereiner

MSC2000: 

  • G64