大学化学 >> 2020, Vol. 35 >> Issue (4): 50-59.doi: 10.3866/PKU.DXHX201911026

所属专题: 全国大学生化学实验创新设计竞赛

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计算机辅助氧弹量热计探索火箭燃料的推进性能

王玉琪, 钟子婷, 盘盈滢, 刘帅, 林昕元, 林耿忠, 庞浩然, 章伟光(), 何广平   

  • 收稿日期:2019-11-18 录用日期:2019-11-20 发布日期:2020-01-09
  • 通讯作者: 章伟光 E-mail:wgzhang@scnu.edu.cn

Propulsion Performance of Rocket Fuel through Bomb Calorimeter and Computer Simulation

Wang Yuqi, Zhong Ziting, Pan Yingying, Liu Shuai, Lin Xinyuan, Lin Gengzhong, Pang Haoran, Zhang Weiguang(), He Guangping   

  • Received:2019-11-18 Accepted:2019-11-20 Published:2020-01-09
  • Contact: Zhang Weiguang E-mail:wgzhang@scnu.edu.cn

摘要:

本实验基于现行“综合化学实验”进行创新性改进。将一定压力的氮气充入氧弹,在以硝酸钾为氧化剂、三氧化二铁为催化剂的条件下,混合一定比例的蔗糖得到硝糖燃料,进行燃烧,采用环境恒温量热计记录蔗糖燃烧过程中的温度变化,再通过雷诺作图法校正产生的ΔT偏差,最终计算得到硝糖燃烧过程的恒容热效应,即为硝糖燃料的爆热值。当蔗糖:硝酸钾:氧化铁的质量比为39:59:2时,其爆热值最大,比冲最大。在上述实验的基础上,选择最佳配比的硝糖燃料,用于计算机仿真模拟火箭发射系统。通过改变燃烧室压力和燃料流速,计算得到该最佳配比硝糖燃料的比冲和火箭飞行高度,进而得到采用单级火箭将东方红一号卫星送入预定轨道的发动机参数。改变每一级火箭的燃料类型与比例,设计得到适于推进不同卫星进入预定轨道的二级火箭和三级火箭。通过设计氧弹量热计的拓展应用与计算机仿真模拟相结合的实验,达到已有实验的创新设计、启发学生创造性和引起科研兴趣的目的。

关键词: 火箭燃料, 氧弹量热计, 爆热值, 计算机模拟

Abstract:

This work has been designed as an example in current comprehensive chemistry laboratory course. Firstly, nitrogen was filled into a bomb calorimeter, and sucrose was combusted in this calorimeter using KNO3 as the oxidant and ferric oxide as the catalyst. During combustion of sucrose, change of the temperature was measured through using isothermal calorimeter. Next, the deviation of ΔT was corrected using Reynolds method, and the heat of combustion of sucrose at constant volume was calculated, that is the heat of explosion of nitrosaccharose. When the mass ratio of sucrose-KNO3-ferric oxide was 39:59:2, both the heat of explosion and specific impulse were the largest. Based on the above results, the best proportion of nitrosaccharose fuel was selected for computer simulation of rocket launching system. A series of the specific impulse of nitrosaccharose fuel and the flying height of the rocket were obtained through changing the pressure of combustion chamber and flow rate of nitrosaccharose fuel. In addition, the engine parameters of single-stage rocket for transporting Dongfanghong-1 into the predetermined orbit were calculated through using this simulation system. The engine parameters of multiple-state rockets were also obtained by changing the types and ratio of rocket fuel. As a result, combination of bomb calorimeter experiments and computer simulation system greatly helped innovative design of the current experiment, enlightening creative thought of students.

Key words: Rocket fuel, Bomb calorimeter, Heat of explosion, Computer simulation

MSC2000: 

  • G64:O6