大学化学 >> 2022, Vol. 37 >> Issue (3): 2107128.doi: 10.3866/PKU.DXHX202107128

所属专题: 生物无机与大健康

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微量元素铜与人体生理功能和疾病

向思佳, 刘扬中()   

  • 收稿日期:2021-07-31 录用日期:2021-09-10 发布日期:2021-11-10
  • 通讯作者: 刘扬中 E-mail:liuyz@ustc.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:刘扬中,Email: liuyz@ustc.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(21573213)

The Essential Trace Element Copper in Human Physiology and Pathology

Sijia Xiang, Yangzhong Liu()   

  • Received:2021-07-31 Accepted:2021-09-10 Published:2021-11-10
  • Contact: Yangzhong Liu E-mail:liuyz@ustc.edu.cn

摘要:

铜是人体中重要的微量金属元素之一,在多种生命活动中起着不可或缺的作用,包括电子传递、线粒体功能以及多种酶的活性。铜的缺乏或过量都会对人体产生严重、甚至是致命的危害,所以铜的摄取、胞内组装和代谢都需要严格的调控。铜的内稳态平衡的破坏可以导致贫血、威尔逊疾病和门克斯疾病,并严重影响大脑的功能。近年来的研究发现,肿瘤的生长、免疫系统的功能也与铜有着密不可分的联系。本文介绍铜在人体中的生物学功能、铜蛋白的作用以及铜的运输机制及储存机制,并对铜与相关疾病的关系进行讨论。

关键词: 铜, 微量元素, 铜蛋白, 铜转运, 疾病

Abstract:

Copper is one of the essential trace elements in human. It plays an indispensable role in a variety of physiological activities, including electron transport, mitochondrial functions, and the activity of many enzymes. Either deficiency or excess of copper can cause serious or even fatal harm. Therefore, the uptake, intracellular distribution and metabolism of copper are strictly regulated. Disruption of the homeostasis of copper can lead to anemia, Wilson's disease and Menkes' disease, and seriously affects the brain functions. Recent researches reveal that copper is also associated with the tumor growth and the immune system. This article reviews the biological functions of copper, the function of copper proteins, and the transport and storage mechanisms of copper, and also summarizes the relationship between copper and diseases.

Key words: Copper, Essential trace element, Copper protein, Copper transport, Disease

MSC2000: 

  • G64