大学化学 >> 2018, Vol. 33 >> Issue (5): 61-65.doi: 10.3866/PKU.DXHX201801010

师生笔谈 上一篇    下一篇

从拉乌尔定律和亨利定律看恒沸溶液

尹学博1,2,*()   

  1. 1 喀什大学化学与环境学院, 新疆 喀什 844006
    2 南开大学化学学院分析科学研究中心, 天津 300071
  • 收稿日期:2018-01-07 发布日期:2018-05-18
  • 通讯作者: 尹学博 E-mail:xbyin@nankai.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(21375064);国家自然科学基金(21575090);国家重点基础研究发展计划(973计划)(2015CB932001)

Relationship and Difference among Raoult's Law, Henry's Law, and Azeotropic Solution

Xuebo YIN1,2,*()   

  1. 1 College of Chemistry and Environmental Sciences, Kashgar University, Kashgar 844006, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, P. R. China
    2 Research Center for Analytical Science, College of Chemistry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, P. R. China
  • Received:2018-01-07 Published:2018-05-18
  • Contact: Xuebo YIN E-mail:xbyin@nankai.edu.cn
  • Supported by:
    国家自然科学基金(21375064);国家自然科学基金(21575090);国家重点基础研究发展计划(973计划)(2015CB932001)

摘要:

气液平衡是理论教学和实际生产中的重要内容。本文从微观本质讨论理论教学中的拉乌尔定律和亨利定律以及实际生产中的恒沸溶液之间的关系和区别。溶剂-溶剂、溶剂-溶质和溶质-溶质之间相互作用的不同导致两个定律仅适用于稀溶液。这些相互作用通过物质的量分数调节溶剂和溶质的表观蒸气压,当二者的表观蒸气压相等时,则产生了恒沸溶液。

关键词: 拉乌尔定律, 亨利定律, 恒沸溶液, 微观解释

Abstract:

Gas-liquid equilibrium is important in classroom teaching and practical production. In this paper, the relationship and difference among Raoult's Law, Henry's Law, and azeotropic solution are discussed from the point of microscopic view. The different interactions between solvent-solvent, solvent-solute, and solute-solute lead to that the two laws are only useful for dilute solution. When the apparent vapor pressure of the solvent and solute are equal to each other by tuning their mole fraction, the azeotropic solution is produced.

Key words: Raoult's Law, Henry's Law, Azeotropic solution, Microscopic view

MSC2000: 

  • G64