大学化学 >> 2019, Vol. 34 >> Issue (1): 33-38.doi: 10.3866/PKU.DXHX201805022

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导致冰面极低摩擦系数的原因:研究进展及模型分析

王广振,王文亮,高欣,张树永*()   

  • 收稿日期:2018-05-14 发布日期:2019-01-16
  • 通讯作者: 张树永 E-mail:syzhang@sdu.edu.cn

Reasons for the Low Frictional Coefficient of Ice Surface: Progress and Model Analysis

Guangzhen WANG,Wenliang WANG,Xin GAO,Shuyong ZHANG*()   

  • Received:2018-05-14 Published:2019-01-16
  • Contact: Shuyong ZHANG E-mail:syzhang@sdu.edu.cn

摘要:

低摩擦系数是冰的重要特性。人们将冰面的低摩擦系数归因于冰表面存在液态水。本文首先综述了液态水产生的三大假说,通过计算证明压力融解和摩擦融解并非冰面具有低摩擦系数的主要原因。通过分析前人结果,进一步明确冰表面存在液态水并非冰面低摩擦系数的唯一原因。提出在冰的表面存在由冰晶和液态水构成的过渡层结构的新模型,指出过渡层中小冰晶在受力切线方向上的水平滑动或者滚动,以及液态水的润滑都是冰面低摩擦系数的原因。

关键词: 冰面, 低摩擦系数, 冰表面结构, 过渡层

Abstract:

Low friction is the most outstanding feature of ice surface. The existence of liquid water on ice surface, which serves as lubricant, has been taken as the main cause for its low friction. Three main hypotheses for the formation of liquid water on ice surface were introduced and analyzed. It was found that the pressure-melting, friction heat-melting and pre-melting theories cannot give satisfactory explanation to all facts. Based on the previous studies, it was clear that the formation of liquid water was not the only reason for explaining the low friction of ice. A new model that there is a transition layer with small ice particles and liquid water forming a gel-like amorphous structure on the ice surface is proposed. Owing to the weak interaction between these small ice particles, they can easily slide or rotate along the shear direction and thus reduce friction. Both the rotation of ice particles and lubrication of liquid water benefit excellent slipperiness of ice surface.

Key words: Ice surface, Low frictional efficient, Surface structure of ice, Transition layer

MSC2000: 

  • G64