大学化学 >> 2020, Vol. 35 >> Issue (8): 67-74.doi: 10.3866/PKU.DXHX201910029

所属专题: 无机化学课程教学

知识介绍 上一篇    下一篇

摩尔新定义和准确测定的阿伏伽德罗常数

高玲香(), 张姝颖, 张伟强, 翟全国, 胡满成, 高胜利   

  • 收稿日期:2019-10-15 录用日期:2020-01-02 发布日期:2020-02-21
  • 通讯作者: 高玲香 E-mail:gaolx@snnu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    陕西师范大学2019年特色金课项目“无机化学”

New Definition of Mole and the Accurate Avogadro Constant

Lingxiang Gao(), Shuying Zhang, Weiqiang Zhang, Quanguo Zhai, Mancheng Hu, Shengli Gao   

  • Received:2019-10-15 Accepted:2020-01-02 Published:2020-02-21
  • Contact: Lingxiang Gao E-mail:gaolx@snnu.edu.cn
  • Supported by:
    陕西师范大学2019年特色金课项目“无机化学”

摘要:

针对2019年国际SI单位新标准的实施,依据文献对阿伏伽德罗常数和摩尔物质量原理进行了简短的历史回顾。着重于摩尔新定义的概念和准确测定阿伏伽德罗常数的描述,突出了原子量精密测量技术、纳米量级精密测量技术以及材料制备和表征技术的发展。相对而言,摩尔新定义更能体现科学方法和科学思维同化学知识的关系,将会对无机化学、分析化学、物理化学等课程教学引起巨大的冲击波,并且会波及到每个化学专业本科生。本文内容可为提高本科生的科研思维和科研素质提供借鉴。

关键词: 摩尔, 阿伏伽德罗常数, 原子量, 单晶硅, 计量学

Abstract:

The new standard for international SI units was officially implemented this year and the definitions of the SI basic units, such as mole, will be changed to constants. In this paper, the Avogadro's constant and the principle of molar mass are briefly reviewed, and we focus on the concept of Mole's new definition and how to accurately measure Avogadro constant, as well as the development of atomic weight precision measurement, nano-scale precision measurement, materials preparation and characterization technologies. The new definition of Mole will affect every undergraduate of chemistry because it can better reflect the relationship between scientific methods and scientific thinking and chemical knowledge. It can be anticipated that the new definition of Mole will soon have a huge impact on the teaching of inorganic chemistry, analytical chemistry and physical chemistry. This recount is naturally important to improve the scientific thinking and research quality of undergraduates.

Key words: Mole, Avogadro constant, Atomic mass, Monocrystalline silicon, Metrology

MSC2000: 

  • G64