The paper would revisit the classic story of Fischer-Tropsch process and explore thoroughly the details to get some hints about how an important invention was achieved in the research project. In investigating the conversion of coal into liquid fuels, Franz Fischer and Hans Tropsch at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Coal Research, recognized the potential value of a chemical process of converting carbon monoxide and hydrogen gases into complex mixtures of hydrocarbons, which could be used as alternative liquid fuels. Fischer and Tropsch confirmed their judgements and developed the first practical catalyst in the following 12 years for the process, which initiated the development of indirect coal liquefaction in industrial catalysis. The Fischer-Tropsch process could be used as one classic source of achieving original ideas or solutions for graduate students in their professional careers. Furthermore, for the supervisors or faculty members in universities or research institutes, it would provide an arsenal of spurring scientific discoveries or technological inventions in graduate education programs.
One best way to get insight into the fascinating history of twentieth century chiroptical spectroscopy and its inextricable entanglement with history of quantum physics is to look at the vivid life stories of particular scholars. This article describes the little-known experience of the Belgian theoretical physicist Léon Rosenfeld (1904-1974) in creating a quantum interpretation of the optical activity theory. In the history of science literature Rosenfeld' page was totally a blank sheet, but as a pioneer in the exploration of the quantum origin of optical activity, he has an irreplaceable position in the development history of chiroptical spectroscopy.
The paper would revisit the classic story of ammonia synthesis and explore the untold details to get some hints about how an original idea or solution was produced in running research projects. There were generations of prominent scientists who had devoted to ammonia synthesis and failed with the loss of their fame, time or even lives. Fritz Haber accepted the challenge accidently, and confirmed a sound technological method that ammonia could be synthesized directly from its elements. Afterwards, his method was transferred successfully to the mainstream technology that influences the development of modern agriculture and society. The direct synthesis of ammonia has been used as one of the classic case studies of achieving original ideas or solutions by our graduate students in their professional careers. Furthermore, for the supervisors or service personnel in universities or research institutes, it would provide with an arsenal of spurring scientific discoveries or technological developments in graduate education programs.
Oxygen preparation by potassium chlorate and manganese dioxide is one of the most classical laboratory method. Few study has been made so far on its origination and establishment. Through checking the original roles of potassium chlorate and manganese dioxide, it is found that manganese dioxide was ever first selected as raw material for making oxygen, then led the discovery of chlorine by Scheele and potassium chlorate by Berthollet. Potassium chlorate itself was also ever used for oxygen preparation at a high temperature. In 1832, manganese dioxide was firstly mixed with potassium chlorate for oxygen by Döbereiner and reduces the temperature dramatically. With more following studies, the classic method of oxygen preparation via the two materials was finally established.
This paper mainly introduces Professor Gerhard M. J. Schmidt's life, representative scientific research work and its significance, influence and application, which shows his excellent quality, scholarly research spirit, outstanding achievements and influence. Schmidt was intelligent and early on showed a unique talent for chemistry. His experience of pursuing science was tough, which made him obtain many excellent qualities. He was fascinated by science and worked hard so as to make outstanding achievements in various fields of science, and solid-state organic chemistry is the most representative field. In addition of scientific research, he also held many administrative positions and made many contributions to the scientific development of Weizmann Institute, Israel and the world.
The Chemical Society founded in the era of The Reform Movement of 1898 was the first chemical society in China. Through the research on its background and the cause of its establishment, it was found that it played an exemplary role in the establishment and development of the chemical society.
To better understand the migration and development of the Institute of Chemistry, Academia Sinica during the Anti-Japanese War, we present the arduous course of migration, reconstruction and scientific research. On this basis, we summarize the characteristics and academic contribution of scientific research and other relevant issues of the Institute of Chemistry, Academia Sinica during the wartime.