To comprehensively improve the patriotic feelings, social responsibility, scientific literacy, innovation awareness and comprehensive ability of students in chemistry, we have extensively explored the elements of course ideology and politics in the organic chemistry laboratory. The design concept and specific cases of the course ideology and politics are introduced.
The regioselective rule in the nucleophilic ring opening reactions of unsymmetric epoxides is a general selective rule of typical aliphatic three-membered heterocycles. The regioselectivity controlling factors were discussed from the stability viewpoint of transition states in the nucleophilic ring opening reactions of unsymmetric epoxides. The applications of the regioselective rule in teaching the regioselectivities of electrophilic additions of olefins involving three-membered heterocyclic intermediates in their reaction mechanisms were introduced. The students can gain a thorough understanding of mechanisms and selectivities in different reactions and improve teaching efficiency and results.
Single-atom catalysis is a novel concept proposed by Chinese chemists recently, which has become a trending topic in the research of heterogeneous catalysis. Monatomic gas is an important knowledge point in high school chemistry education. Considering the similarity in Chinese language between "single-atom catalysis" and "monatomic gas", and their very different meaning, this terminology is worth discussing.
By combining ideological and political education with curriculum theory, course ideology and politics not only imparts basic knowledge to students, but also conveys positive values and social concepts, and establishes patriotism. This article integrates ideological and political education and fundamental organic chemistry knowledge into interesting stories, which help students learn the theoretical knowledge, cultivate positive thoughts and set grand life goals.
This paper compared the "Nomenclature of Organic Compounds 2017" of Chinese Chemical Society with the 1980 edition. The concept, meaning as well as the importance in nomenclature of organic compounds of parent hydride and characteristic group are clarified by giving examples. The principles and methods to identify the parent hydride and major characteristic groups for nomenclature of organic compounds are summarized. The general steps for nomenclature of various organic compounds are clarified. The practice of "Nomenclature of Organic Compounds 2017" of Chinese Chemical Society is explained with examples.
In the new era, it is an important task for college teachers to carry out ideological and political education while imparting professional knowledge. This paper introduces the specific implementation methods and strategies of organic chemistry teaching at School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shanxi University from aspects of curriculum objectives and educational elements. On the basis of giving full play to the educational function of professional courses, through the excavation and combination of the ideological and political education elements contained in the organic chemistry teaching materials, the patriotic feelings are permeated, and the teaching purposes of value shaping, ability training and knowledge imparting are realized. This study also tries to provide useful reference for the ideological and political education of professional courses in colleges and universities.
Safety education is an important part of laboratory teaching. This paper compiles safety handouts of organic chemistry laboratory based on RAMP safety, and effectively integrates the safety education into the teaching plan of organic chemistry laboratory, trains the students to correctly identify and evaluate the specific risks in the experimental project, reasonably reduce and control the risks and prepare to respond to emergency. That is conducive to improving the students' safety consciousness, and prevention and control ability, strengthening the whole process management of laboratory teaching, and effectively ensuring the laboratory safety.
Electrophilic substitution reaction, especially electrophilic aromatic substitution, is a common and basic organic reaction. In the reaction, the substituents on the aromatic ring affect the rate of further substitution, as well as the orientation of new groups. In this paper we describe an insight into electrophilic substitution reaction from the view of spectroscopy. We utilize the data of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to disclose how the substituents affect electron cloud of the aromatic ring, and further affect the reactivity and the position of substitution. The paper would inspire students in their study and research.
This article describes the esterification process between monosaccharides and phenylboronic acid and influencing factors, exemplifies the application of this reaction in chemical and biological fields, expands the application of monosaccharides in organic chemistry teaching, and guides students to improve their interest in the interdisciplinary field.
Organic chemistry laboratory is compulsory for the undergraduate students in pharmaceutical engineering specialty, aiming at training the operation skills of organic synthesis. In the present paper, using "Synthesis of Triphenylmethanol" and "Recrystallization" as model experiments, some teaching experiences on organic chemistry laboratory were discussed. The whole experiment procedure was divided into several pieces for teaching, which was easier to understand and master; the same basic operation experiment should be repeated, e.g. three times to enhance the experimental skill.
Semidines, including ortho-semidines and para-semidines, are generally byproducts in the benzidine rearrangements of N, N'-diarylhydrazines under acidic conditions. Under certain cases, for instance, N, N'-diarylhydrazines with substituted aryl substituents would give o- and p-semidines as major products. The π complex mechanism, and mechanisms involving cyclohexadiene cation intermediates and chloride-bridge-linked dication diradical pairs for the formation of semidines were proposed. However, by referring the data of kinetic isotope effect studies, theoretical and experimental investigations suggest that semidine rearrangements are sigmatropic shifts of pericyclic reactions with configuration-inverted N[1, 3] sigmatropic shift as a key step. Mechanistic investigations and examples of semidine rearrangements are reviewed in this paper.
Hyperconjugation is a main concept in teaching of fundamental organic chemistry and it is the extension of inductive and conjugative effect of substituents. This mini-review summarizes various types of hyperconjugations and their contributions to the structural stability and relative reactivity of organic compounds.
There are some problems in current teaching mode, for example, the correlation between the theoretical courses, and between the laboratory and the theoretical courses is strong enough. To solve these problems in the polymer synthesis laboratory, we tried to introduce a teaching idea by connecting the basic knowledge of organic chemistry to the innovative experiment of polymer material synthesis through so called "knowledge association". Using the synthesis and application of new reagents, synthesis of luminescent polyesters, synthesis of polyamides and hydrolysis of polyesters for illustration, this paper introduces how to apply the new theories, methods and reagents of organic chemistry to the laboratory teaching of polymer chemistry and polymer materials, and how to apply the theoretical knowledge and experimental procedures of organic chemistry to the teaching of polymer materials synthesis. The practical results show that the application of basic theoretical knowledge and laboratory skills of organic chemistry in polymer synthesis lab can improve students' understanding and application of the knowledge, enhance their interest in experimental exploration, and effectively improve the classroom atmosphere of polymer material synthesis laboratory.
The terminologies on symmetries are frequently used in organic chemistry. Only very limited discrimination is used in most Chinese organic chemistry textbooks. A same Chinese terminology is indiscriminally used under different scientific situations, which causes misinterpretations for students and scholars. Based on the environment and objects for the use of related English terminologies, this paper suggests three Chinese terminologies, in order to clarify the Chinese descriptions on the symmetries in organic chemistry.
Small molecule activation has attracted much attention in recent years. It can not only facilitate a range of organic reactions, but also transform low-value reagents into high-value products. Nevertheless, it is a big challenge to activate small molecules such as carbon dioxide, dinitrogen, water and dihydrogen due to their high bond dissociation energy. One of the most important strategies for the effective small molecule activation is the application of transition metal catalysis. The key point lies in the interactions between the d orbitals of transition metal and the frontier orbitals of small molecules. This perspective will discuss the interactions between the metal d orbitals and the frontier orbitals of small molecules, and elucidate how these interactions facilitate small molecule activation. We hope that this perspective could help students to gain a better understanding of back bonding theory.
Organic chemistry involves various types of organic reactions, intricate reaction mechanisms and theories, and is difficult to understand and master. The teaching of organic chemistry at the university is the teacher center based and classroom teaching oriented. However, to some extent it restricts students' creative thinking and enthusiasm. In order to arouse the students' interest in organic chemistry and help students master organic chemistry, the attempt of integrating scientific research into organic chemistry teaching could solve the puzzlement of organic chemistry teaching. The teaching of scientific research penetration could broaden knowledge vision, stimulate learning interest, integrate theory with actual scientific research and production, and strengthen the mastery of organic chemistry knowledge.
In view of the existing problems in the organic chemistry laboratory teaching, and the improvement expectation from the students, an online open course of organic chemistry laboratory teaching with relative course wares, micro-videos and questions' bank for each experiment base on online education platform is developed. This online open course focuses on the students' pre-study of lab classes by watching micro-videos, course wares and testing. After previewing courseware and passing test, students can download and print a standard and integrated three-in-one lab report (including preview report, phenomenon record and experiment report), which avoids repeated paper work and improves students' learning efficiency accordingly. Meanwhile, a more objective estimation system for students' laboratory performance is established and has achieved positive results.
In this paper, the incentive mechanism-assisted flipped classroom teaching model was explored to improve the organic chemistry laboratory teaching in our college using preparation of n-bromobutane as an example. The main tasks of teachers and students at the stages of the pre-class, in-class and after-class were introduced, and the teaching effect of the incentive mechanism-assisted flipped classroom was evaluated. The practice results showed that the incentive mechanism-assisted flipped classroom teaching model could improve the students' learning initiative, and ensure the smooth implementation of flipped classroom effectively.
The core teaching content of organic chemistry is the basic theory and reaction mechanism. The difficulty of organic chemistry teaching is the teaching and learning of reaction mechanism, which has always puzzled teachers and students, respectively. The author adopted the three-stage method "teacher's guidance/student's practice/student's comprehensive explanation" in reaction mechanism teaching and learning. Firstly, teacher explains the basic theories followed by the reaction mechanism according to the books and literatures from all over the world. Secondly, let students do some exercises. The teacher arranges basic exercises for the students according to the teaching schedule. Then combine the relevant reaction mechanism, assemble the complex multi-step reaction, and ask students to deduce the reaction products according to the mechanism. Afterwards, the student must give a lecture one by one focusing on one reaction after systematically consulted the literature and materials, organized the materials to all the students and teachers respectively. After the lecture, the teacher supplemented and modified the content the student explained. It has been proved by practice that this method is convenient for students to understand the organic reaction mechanism twice the result with half the effort.
By integrating the connotation and requirements of Xi Jinping green development concept into organic chemistry course, we explored and attempted the course ideology and politics. Taking five key points of organic knowledge as examples, we point out the problems on waste water, waste "mud", hazardous gas, and high energy consumption, and present the well adopted solutions. The present attempt aims to cultivate talents with both professional technical capabilities and green development concept, and to prepare for building a beautiful China in both intellectual and moral aspects.
This paper mainly introduces Professor Gerhard M. J. Schmidt's life, representative scientific research work and its significance, influence and application, which shows his excellent quality, scholarly research spirit, outstanding achievements and influence. Schmidt was intelligent and early on showed a unique talent for chemistry. His experience of pursuing science was tough, which made him obtain many excellent qualities. He was fascinated by science and worked hard so as to make outstanding achievements in various fields of science, and solid-state organic chemistry is the most representative field. In addition of scientific research, he also held many administrative positions and made many contributions to the scientific development of Weizmann Institute, Israel and the world.
Under the current situations of organic chemistry teaching and reforms, a new practical blended teaching method has been developed by combining problem-based learning and flipped classroom with the traditional classroom teaching. It features utility of publicly available online teaching resource and chemistry literature and has been successfully applied in the small-size teaching of organic chemistry for the top talented undergraduate students in biology major. Our teaching practice showed that this blended teaching method is not only convenient and practical; it can also efficiently cultivate the students' interest in learning and facilitate their integrative training including chemical literature searching, communication ability, and teamwork ability. Accordingly, it would be helpful to improve the teaching quality of organic chemistry and promote training of top talented students.
In the substitution and elimination reactions of haloalkanes, the attacking reagents are all negatively charged entities or multi-electron groups, so the competition reaction between substitution and elimination of haloalkanes is the key and difficult part of the teaching content. This article introduces the organization and design of this part of teaching contents, so that students can better understand and grasp this part including the influence of reaction substrates, attacking reagents and reaction conditions on dominant reactions and products. The instructional design plays an important role in training students' ability of analysis, thinking and flexible application of knowledge.
This paper provides a practical explanation of the comparison between nucleophilicity and basicity of nucleophiles. The similarities are explained based on the principle of "structure determines property", and the differences are explained by combining Hard-Soft-Acid-Base theory and the steric hindrance factor.
Collective lesson preparation is an indispensable part of organic chemistry laboratory teaching. For decades, we have always adhered to and continuously innovated the collective lecture preparation in order to make the contents more comprehensive, the forms more diversified, and the effects better. Collective lecture preparation has promoted the improvement of teachers' quality and teaching ability, accelerated the construction of first-class laboratory teaching team, and promoted the innovative development of laboratory teaching contents, teaching methods, teaching means and laboratory management. It ensures the steady improvement of the teaching quality of the organic chemistry laboratory.
As the core of short-course organic chemistry, main chemical properties of typical organic compounds were reclassified and rearranged according to the nature of organic reactions as well as the relationship between reactants and products. Besides, frequently encountered thorny points in the course were interpreted in a vivid way. For example, a novel and convenient skill to judge the R/S configuration of chiral molecules in dash-wedge three-dimensional drawings was presented. In addition, knowledge on the fatalness and corresponding emergency treatment of typical organic chemicals and reactions was introduced, so as to conform to current domestic situation emphasizing on chemical safety. Based on these above reforms, a new textbook, An Introduction to Organic Chemistry, was published and has been used in the teaching of short-course organic chemistry at Beijing Institute of Petrochemical Technology for two semesters. Performance analysis of students from five majors including 19 administrative classes shows an significant increase in the scores.
This paper introduces the practice and important role of standardizing work process in the management of organic chemistry laboratory, combined with the actual daily management. Strengthening the implementation of standardizing work process can not only reduce the burden of technicians, but also ensure the normalization of daily management of the laboratory, thus improving the management efficiency of organic chemistry laboratory and serving the basic laboratory teaching.
By means of calculation on the molecular structures and energies of some organic compounds and intermediates based on 6-311G(d)/B3LYP method, the following questions have been discussed:(1) regioselectivity of Birch reduction; (2) electronic effect of chloromethyl; (3) effect of antiaromaticity on structures of organic compounds; (4) local aromaticity of polycyclic compounds. These calculations and discussions enrich the teaching content of organic chemistry course and are useful for college students to study aromatic hydrocarbon.
To share application experiences and thoughts on blended learning in organic chemistry laboratory, we introduced the research contents, including course design, implementation, teaching effect and evaluation, etc.
A simple multi-channel gas distribution device is introduced, which can easily and conveniently distribute the inert gas to multiple students at the same time, and ensure sufficient air flow for each branch. The device can improve the safety of operation and reduce the waste of resources. It is convenient to disassemble and assemble, facilitating easy usage and storage, while saving spaces.
It is very important for research-oriented universities to cultivate students' scientific thinking. As an important basic course for non-chemistry major students with specialty related to chemistry, organic chemistry laboratory teaching plays an important role in cultivating students' operational skills, innovative ability, and scientific research thinking. Taking the teaching practice of the "College Chemistry Laboratory (O)" for non-chemical undergraduates as an example, this paper discusses how to complete the cultivation of students' scientific research thinking in the teaching process from the aspects of students' learning style, teachers' teaching methods, and laboratory-teaching content.
Red-Al is a very important aluminium-based reducing reagent. The prevous Chinese translation of "RedAl" was "red aluminium", based on the spelling instead of looking into the meaning. This paper suggests "reducing aluminium" for the translation.
Based on the cultivation of innovative chemistry-majored students, the teaching reform and practice of organic chemistry course in Lanzhou University have been carried out continuously. This paper summarizes the teaching reform and practice from course goals, reform methods, innovational features, teaching evaluation and reform effect in order to further improve the teaching quality.
This paper mainly introduces the construction of the integrated teaching system of "teaching, learning and practice" in organic chemistry laboratory, and explores the practical application of the integrated teaching system in effectively serving "teaching" and "learning".