Transition-metal-catalyzed cleavage of amide C-N bonds has become one of the hot fields of organic chemistry and organometallic chemistry. The cleavage of amide carbonyl C-N bonds catalyzed by transition-metal catalysts can be mainly classified into five pathways: i) via oxidative addition, ii) via acyl migration in ammonium species, iii) via protonolysis, iv) via hydrogenation, and v) via decarboxylation. Transition-metal-catalyzed cleavage of amide non-carbonyl C-N bonds can be divided into four classes: i) via oxidative addition, ii) via nucleophilic attack, iii) via imine or iminium species, and iv) via β-amino elimination. This review briefly summarized the different modes of transition-metal-catalyzed cleavage of amide carbonyl and non-carbonyl C-N bonds in recent years.
The flipped classroom has drawn much attention because it facilitates the transition from a teacher-centered classroom to a student-centered classroom. Taking an experiment of the phenanthroline spectrophotometric determination of micro-iron in water, as an example, the paper explores the application of the flipped classroom teaching mode in college chemistry laboratory teaching for non-chemistry majors. According to the flipped classroom teaching process, this paper studies the instructional design and implementation of the pre-class video, the pre-class test and classroom activities in class. And it also explores the teaching method of the scientific and technological literature application of a pre-class video. Classroom activities provide students with the opportunity to present themselves. The pre-class video and the testing help students to prepare experiment, broaden the vision of students, and motivate students' interest in the chemistry experiment.
Aiming to solve the contradiction between the traditional test oriented education in high schools and innovation education in universities, the applied chemistry major in Northwest A & F University has launched a freshman seminar course to cultivate students' innovation consciousness, innovation ability, and the spirit of exploration and criticism. The teaching contents include the introduction of the applied chemistry discipline and nine academic fields of applied chemistry. The course is designed mainly for small class discussion between students and the teacher. This paper introduces the teaching model, teaching content, exam model and teaching effect, which will provide a new idea in the freshman seminar course of related majors.
The cultivation of students' self-learning abilities is vital to the development of their independent research and innovation abilities. Problems are investigated both in the teaching and learning process of inorganic chemistry experiment. We adopt different teaching modes and measures in different teaching stages of inorganic chemistry experiment in order to help students develop their senses of self-learning and improve their self-learning abilities. The research lays a solid foundation of training high quality innovation talents for the new century.
This paper explored how to combine the effective guidance of teachers with students' selflearning via three case-teaching practices in general chemistry. Amodel of talents cultivation for students and their ability training was advocated to achieve the improvement of chemistry literacy and self-learning ability for engineering students.
The concepts and theories of structural chemistry course are usually abstract and difficult, which is hard for students to understand. These features make it more difficult for the young teachers to teach structural chemistry well. In this paper, based on the self-experience on teaching structural chemistry, some suggestions for the design of course and teaching preparation were shared with young teachers.
Shaoguan university has begun the practice to explore the application-oriented talents training mode in chemical undergraduate education since 2012. This practice is based on the construction of superior teaching team to set up a"one and four"application-oriented talents training mode. By taking theoretical teaching as the major approach, considering the teaching platform, establishing high-quality teaching resources, and diversifying the evaluation system, this reform is proved to be an effective way in application-oriented talents cultivation in local universities.
In the teaching of medical chemistry to joint classes with different majors, it is a challenge to give considerations covering every major, thus it is difficult to stimulate students' learning interest. Using the customized teaching cases can effectively solve the problem. Two clinical cases, osteoporosis and neonatal jaundice, were chosen to illustrate how to design clinical cases that are suited for nursing and biomedical majors. The customized case teaching can stimulate students' learning interest.
Taking time as the order, the authors propose that the discovery and development of the periodic table of chemical elements are divided into four stages: germination, breakthrough, development and prospect. This article cites the main historical facts and documents to unscramble the above four stages, which will facilitate the teaching and scientific research of the periodic table.
In this paper, we introduced the training and management of teaching assistant (TA) in the chemistry laboratory teaching center in USTC. The contents were discussed based on the application and training process, the teaching methods and techniques, the assessing system, and the incentive measures. Besides, this paper analyzed the function of TA in the undergraduate laboratory teaching, and described several existing problems and the corresponding solutions.
This paper presents a new studying and exploring type of college comprehensive chemical experiment about preparation of natural dye-sensitized solar cells. The contents include extraction of natural dyes, UV-Vis absorption measurement of natural dyes and their sensitized photoelectrodes, preparation of dye-sensitized solar cells, photovoltaic performance measurement of these cells, and so on. With the practice of the experiment, students can better grasp the relevant professional knowledge and improve the experimental skill. It can also stimulate students' interest in scientific research and cultivate their scientific research ability.
The synthesis and characterization of 4'-[5-(4-carboxylphenylfuran)-2-yl)]-2, 2':6', 2″-terpyridine is an exploratory experiment completed by senior undergraduates. 4-(5-formylfuran-2-yl) benzoic acid was obtained with furfural and 4-aminobenzoic acid as raw materials by a coupled reaction at low temperature. The target compound was obtained with 4-(5-formylfuran-2-yl) benzoic acid and 2-acetylpyridine in the presence of ammonium hydroxide and characterized by melting point, IR and 1H NMR measurements. It is proposed as an organic chemistry experiment as it contains coupling reaction of aromatic rings, synthesis of α, β-unsaturated ketone, Michael addition reaction which would be beneficial for training of students.
Mineralogy is one of the brotherly sub-disciplines closely related to inorganic chemistry. Its observations and sequential studies have long been one of the most important resources for the generation of inorganic chemistry knowledge, and the basic principles of elemental chemistry have been widely applied to the development of mineralogy. The ideas of mineralogy can possibly deepen the graphic and rational understanding of how to apply chemical principles into natural mineral systems, and facilitate the management of various properties of each elements, which is of high benefit to the next generation. This manuscript starts with the summarization of instructive cores in the mineralogy principle and laboratory education, followed by the observation and property study of multiple representable miners as experimental models, as well as the analysis of how to teach mineralogy with the combination of real case studies. The concept is opening the door for a novel education mode as the combination of basic knowledge and interdisciplinary frontiers to introduce mineral-related contents into fundamental inorganic chemistry education.
The author gives a brief introduction about the medical organic chemistry teaching, including the introductory lecture, teaching process design, teaching content organization, and frontier knowledge supplements, which aims at cultivating and enhancing students' interest in medical organic chemistry and the scientific thinking ability.