University Chemistry ›› 2023, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (4): 284-290.doi: 10.3866/PKU.DXHX202211045

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Improvement and Expansion of Diazonium Salt Synthesis Experiment

Yi Liu, Qingyun Lei, Wenyu Qin, Ke Wang, Jiazhu Li()   

  • Received:2022-11-15 Accepted:2023-01-04 Published:2023-03-14
  • Contact: Jiazhu Li


Organic chemistry experiment is an important course for majoring in chemistry and related fields. Through experiment and laboratory training, students can learn and master the basic skills of organic synthesis and learn to select the correct methods for synthesis, separation, purification, analysis, and identification of organic compounds. "Preparation and Reaction of Diazonium Salts" is a classic experimental project in organic chemistry experimental textbooks but poses several challenges. For example, concentrated hydrochloric acid is corrosive and an irritant, highly acidic wastewater is produced, the product exhibits poor stability and yield, and a strict temperature control is required. This project aims to improve the synthesis method of diazonium salt by optimizing the reaction efficiency, solvent utilization rate, and the post-treatment process, thereby reducing the use of toxic substances and wastewater discharge. The improved experiment is more suitable for use in a teaching environment. Azo dye synthesis and corresponding organic spectroscopy contents are also included in the improved experiment; therefore, students can learn to characterize target compounds using nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectroscopy as well as the absorption properties of dyes, which is more conducive to the cultivation of comprehension quality.

Key words: Organic synthesis, Diazonium salt, Azo dye, Green chemistry