University Chemistry ›› 2023, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (2): 243-252.doi: 10.3866/PKU.DXHX202205041

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Mathematical and Chemical Analyses of Acid-Base Titration Curve

Xuyang Wang1,2, Shuzhe Sun1,2, Xiaowen Xu1, Guizheng Zou1, Bin Zhang1,*()   

  1. 1 School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100, China
    2 Taishan College, Shandong University, Jinan 250100, China
  • Received:2022-05-11 Accepted:2022-06-05 Published:2022-06-21
  • Contact: Bin Zhang


Acid-base titration is the most basic experiment in analytical chemistry. The titration curve reflects the whole process of neutralization reaction and is very important to understand acid-base titration. Based on three basic hypotheses, the chemical equilibrium, electroneutrality principle and mass balance, we established mathematical model between ionization degree and pH as well as titration percentage by keeping one parameter unchanged and the other two changed at the initial point. In addition, we recovered the acid-base titration curve by performing mathematical analysis and derivatization of the function. Through the analysis of two initial conditions in mathematical formula and the effects on the function, the quantitative validation on interpretations was introduced for reactions of different concentrations and strength of acids in titrations described in traditional teaching materials. With theoretical expansion of titration curves, we proposed a possible method for weak acid titration.

Key words: Analytical chemistry, Acid-base titration, Titration curve, Acid-base equilibrium, Mathematical model