University Chemistry ›› 2021, Vol. 36 ›› Issue (6): 2007030.doi: 10.3866/PKU.DXHX202007030

• Survey of Chemistry • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Metrics to Green Chemistry

Lei Zhou()   

  • Received:2020-07-09 Accepted:2020-09-03 Published:2020-09-23
  • Contact: Lei Zhou


This paper introduces the main metrics that have been commonly used to test and compare the "greenness" of processes and products, including atom economy, the carbon efficiency, the reaction mass efficiency, the environmental fact, the environmental quotient, the process mass intensity, the life cycle assessment and the green aspiration level. The definition, difference and connection of these metrics are described in detail. Application examples are also presented to illustrate key concepts and their calculation. The green metrics cover aspects of starting materials, processing, products, wastes, and amongst others. The advent of these metrics not only promotes the advances of green chemistry, but also drives business, government and communities towards the standard of more sustainable practices.

Key words: Green chemistry, Metrics, Green aspiration level